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제목 When God Made Fathers
작성자 관리자
작성일 2011-05-04
When God Made Fathers
by Erma Bombeck

When the good Lord was creating Fathers, he started with a tall frame.
A female angel nearby said, "What kind of a Father is that? If you're going to make children so close to the ground, why have you put the Father up so high? He won't be able to shoot marbles without kneeling, tuck a child in bed without bending, or even kiss a child without stooping"
God smiled and said, "Yes, but if I make him child size, who would children have to look up to?"
And when God made a Father's hands, they were large. The angel shook her head and said,"Large hands can't manage diaper pins, small buttons, rubber bands on pony tails, or even remove splinters caused from baseball bats."
Again God smiled and said, "I know, but they're large enough to hold everything a small boy empties from his pockets, yet small enough to cup a child's face in them."
Then God molded long slim legs and broad shoulders, "Do you realize you just made a Father without a lap?" The angel chuckled.
God said, "A Mother needs a lap. A Father needs strong shoulders to pull a sled, to balance a boy on a bicycle, or to hold a sleepy head on the way home from the circus."
When God was in the middle of creating the biggest feet any one had ever seen, the angel could not contain herself any longer. "That's not fair. Do you honestly think those feet are going to get out of bed early in the morning when the baby cries, or walk through a birthday party without crushing one or two of the guests?"
God again smiled and said, "They will work. You will see. They will support a small child who wants to ride to Branbury Cross or scare mice away from a summer cabin, or display shoes that will be a challenge to fill."
God worked throughout the night, giving the Father few words, but a firm authoritative voice; eyes that see everything, but remain calm and tolerant.
Finally, almost as an after thought, He added tears. Then he turned to the angel and said, "Now are you satisfied he can love as much as a Mother can?"
The angel said nothing more.

When the good Lord was creating fathers, He started with a tall frame. A female angel nearby said, "What kind of father is that? If you're going to make children so close to the ground, why have you put fathers up so high? He won't be able to shoot marbles without kneeling, tuck a child in bed without bending or even kiss a child without a lot of stooping. And God smiled and said, "Yes, but if I make him childsize, who would children have to look up to?"
And when God made a father's hands, they were large and sinewy. The angel shook her head sadly and said, "Large hands are clumsy. They can't manage diaper pins, small buttons, rubber bands on ponytails or even remove splinters caused by baseball bats." And God smiled and said, "I know, but they're large enough to hold everything a small boy empties from his pockets at the end of a day, yet small enough to cup a child's face."
And then God molded long, slim legs and broad shoulders. The angel nearly had a heart attack. "Boy, this is the end of the week, all right," she clucked. "Do you realize you just made a father without a lap? How is he going to pull a child close to him without the kid falling between his legs?" And God smiled and said, "A mother needs a lap. A father needs strong shoulders to pull a sled, balance a boy on a bicycle or hold a sleepy head on the way home from the circus."
God was in the middle of creating two of the largest feet anyone had ever seen when the angel could contain herself no longer. "That's not fair. Do you honestly think those large boats are going to dig out of bed early in the morning when the baby cries? Or walk through a small birthday party without crushing at least three of the guests?" And God smiled and said, "They'll work. You'll see. They'll support a small child who wants to ride a horse to Banbury Cross or scare off mice at the summer cabin or display shoes that will be a challenge to fill."
God worked throughout the night, giving the father few words but a firm, authoritive voice and eyes that saw everything but remained calm and tolerant. Finally, almost as an afterthought, He added tears. Then He turned to the angel and said, "Now, are you satisfied that he can love as much as a mother?" The angel shutteth up.
영어 명문
<< Human Types >>

Raymond Firth
In our own economic system money gives a universal measure of values, a convenient medium of exchange through which we can buy or sell almost anything, and also a standard by which payments at one time can be expressed as commitments for the future. In a wider sense it allows for the measurement of services against things, and promotes the flow of the economic process. In a primitive society without money, we might expect all this to be absent, yet the economic process goes on. There is a recognition of services, and payment is made for them; there are means of absorbing people into the productive process, and values are expressed in quantitative terms, measured by traditional standards.

*universal: 일반적인, 보편적인 *medium: 수단, 매개물, 중간 *payment: 보수, 지불금액, 지불, 불입 *commitment: 약속, 언명, 공약 *promote: 촉진시키다 *primitive: 원시의 *go on: ~하기를 계속하다 *absorb: 흡수하다 *productive: 생산적인, 생산성의 *quantitative: 분량상의, 양에 의한

우리 자신의 경제 체제에서 돈은 가치의 일반적인 척도이며 우리가 무엇이라도 사고 팔 수 있는 교역의 편리한 수단이며 또한 일정한 때의 급료가 장래에 대한 약속으로 표현될 수 있는 기준이기도 하다. 넓은 의미에서 돈은 물건에 대해서 서비스의 측정을 가능하게 해주며 경제의 흐름을 촉진시켜 준다. 돈이 없는 원시사회에서는 이런 모든 것이 없을 것으로 기대하지만 그러나 경제과정은 계속된다. 서비스를 인정하고 거기에 대한 대가를 치뤄준다. 생산 과정에 사람들을 흡수하는 수단이 있고 가치는 전통적인 기준에 의해서 표현되는 양으로써 평가된다.


Let us examine, to begin with, a situation of simple distribution such as occurs when an animal is killed in a hunt. Do the hunters fall on the carcass and cut it to pieces, the largest piece to the strongest man? This is hardly over the case. The beast is normally divided according to recognized principles. Since the killing of an animal is usually a cooperative activity, one might expect to find it portioned out according to the amount of work done by each hunter to obtain it. To some extent this principle is followed, but other people have their rights as well. In many parts of Australia each person in the camp gets a share depending upon his or her relation to the hunters. The worst parts may even be kept by the hunters themselves. In former times, at Alice Springs, according to Palmer, when a kangaroo was killed the hunter had to give the left hindleg to his brother, the tail to his father's brother's son, the loins and fat to his father-in-law, the ribs to his mother-in-law, the forelegs to his father's younger sister, the head to his wife, and he kept for himself the entrails and the blood. In different areas the portions assigned to such kinsfolk differ. When grumbles and fights occur, as they often do, it is not because the basic principles of distribution are questioned, but because it is thought they are not being properly followed. Though the hunter, his wife, and children seem to fare badly, this inequality is corrected by their getting in their turn better portions from kills by other people. The result is a criss-cross set of exchanges always in progress. The net result in the long run is substantially the same to each person, but through this system the principles of kinship obligation and the morality of sharing food have been emphasized.


*to begin with: 우선 *carcass: (짐승의)시체, 송장 *cut to pieces: 갈기갈기 베다, 난도질하다 *beast: 짐승, 금수, 동물 *cooperative: 협동의, 협력적인 *portion out: 분배하다 *to some extent: 어느 정도까지, 다소 *in former times: 옛날에 *kangaroo: 캉가루 *hindleg: 뒷다리 *loin: 허리 *fat: 지방 *rib: 갈비, 늑골, 갈빗대 *foreleg: 앞다리 *entrails: 내장 *portion: 몫, 운명, 부분 *kinsfolks: 친척, 일가 *grumble: 불평하다 *fare badly: 운이 나쁘다 *inequality: 불평등 *in one's turn: 차례가 되어 *criss-cross: 엇갈린, 교차된 *in progress: 진행 중 *net: 순수한, 에누리 없는 *substantially: 실질적으로 *kinship: 친족관계 *obligation: 의무 *morality: 도덕


우선 사냥에서 짐승을 잡았을 때 일어나는 것과 같은 단순 분배의 경우를 검토해보자. 사냥꾼들이 죽은 짐승에 달려들어 이것을 조각으로 내어 제일 큰 조각을 가장 힘센 사람이 갖는가? 결코 그렇지 않다. 짐승은 일반적으로 인정되는 원칙에 따라서 정상적으로 분배된다. 짐승을 잡는 것은 보통 협동적인 행위이기 때문에 짐승을 잡기 위해서 각 사냥꾼이 했던 일의 양에 따라 분배될 것으로 기대할 수 있다. 이 원칙이 어느 정도 까지는 지켜지지만 다른 사람들도 마찬가지로 권리를 갖고 있다. 오스트레일리아의 많은 지방에서는 마을의 모든 사람이 사냥꾼과의 관계에 따라서 일정한 몫을 갖는다. 사냥꾼들 자신은 가장 나쁜 부분을 가질 수도 잇다. Palmer에 따르면 옛날에 Alice Springs에서는 캉가루 한 마리를 잡았을 때 왼쪽 뒷다리는 형에게, 꼬리는 사촌에게, 허리와 지방질은 장인에게, 갈비는 장모에게, 앞다리는 고모에게, 머리는 부인에게 줘야 했고 자신은 내장과 피를 가졌다. 서로 다른 지역에서는 이들 친척들에게 할당되는 부분도 달랐다. 종종 있는 일이지만 불평이나 싸움이 일어날 때 그것은 분배의 원칙을 의심하기 때문에 아니라 이 원칙을 잘 지키지 않는다고 생각하기 때문이다. 사냥꾼과 그의 가족들은 운이 나쁜 것처럼 보이지만 이런 불평등은 그들의 차례가 되어 다른 사람들이 사냥한 것으로부터 더 좋은 부분을 얻음으로써 시정된다. 결과는 서로 엇갈린 일련의 교환이 언제나 계속된다. 장기적으로 볼 때 순수 결과는 실질적으로 각자에게 똑 같은 것이며 이 방식을 통해서 친족 의무의 원칙과 식량을 나누어 먹는다는 도덕의 원리가 강조되어 왔다.

We see from this that though the principle that a person should get a reward for his labour is not ignored, this principle is caught up into a wider set of codes which recognize that kinship ties, positions, or privilege, and ritual ideas should be supported on an economic basis. As compared with our own society, primitive societies make direct allowance for the dependents upon producers as well as for the immediate producers themselves.

*reward: 대가, 보수, 보상, 보답 *code: 규범 *ritual: 의식의, 관습의 *as compared with: ~와 비교하여 *make allowance for: ~을 참작하다, 고려하다 *dependent: 의존하고 있는 사람, 부양가족

우리가 여기서 알 수 있는 것은 어떤 사람이 자기 노력의 대가를 받아야 한다는 원칙이 무시되지는 않지만 이 원칙은 친족관계나 지위 혹은 특권 그리고 의식상의 개념이 경제적인 기초 위에서 뒷받침이 되어져야 한다는 더 광범위한 일련의 규범에 포함된다는 것이다. 우리 자신의 사회와 비교해 볼 때 원시 사회는 직접 생산을 하는 사람들과 마찬가지로 그들에게 의존하고 있는 사람들도 참작한다.

These same principles come out in an even more striking way in the feasts which are such an important part of much primitive life. The people who produce the food, or who own it, deliberately often hand over the best portions to others.
*come out: 나타나다, 드러나다 *striking: 현저한, 두드러진 *feast: 잔치, 축제, 축연 *deliberately: 일부러 *hand over: 건네주다, 양도하다

많은 원시생활의 중요한 부분인 잔치에서 이와 똑같은 원칙이 더욱 더 놀라운 방법으로 나타난다. 식량을 생산하거나 소유하는 사람들이 가장 좋은 부분을 일부러 남에게 준다.

A feast may be the means of repaying the labour of others; of setting the seal on an important event, such as initiation or marriage; or of cementing an alliance between groups. Prestige is usually gained by the giver of the feast, but where personal credit and renown are linked most closely with the expenditure of wealth, the giving of a feast is a step upon the ladder of social status. In the Banks Islands and other parts of Melanesia such feasts are part of the ceremonial of attaining the various ranks of the men's society, which is an important feature of native life. In Polynesia these graded feasts do not normally occur, but in Tikopia a chief is expected to mark the progress of his reign by a feast every decade or so. The 'feasts of merit' of the Nagas of Assam are not so much assertion against social competitors as means of gaining certain recognized ranks in the society.

*repay: 보답하다 *seal: 봉인, 보증의 표적, 서약 *initiation: 입회식, 입문식 *cement: (우정 따위를) 굳게 하다 *alliance: 동맹, 결연, 인척관계 *prestige: 위신, 명성 *renown: 명성 *be linked with: ~와 관계가 있다 *ladder: 사닥다리 *social status: 사회적 지위 *ceremonial: 의식, 의례 *feature: 특징 *normally: 보통 *reign: 통치하다 *decade: 10년간 *not so much A as B: A라기 보다는 B이다 *assertion: 주장 *competitor: 경쟁자

잔치는 다른 사람들의 노력에 대한 보답을 하는 수단일 수도 있고 입회나 결혼 혹은 집단들 간에 동맹을 공고히 하는 것과 같은 중요한 일을 공인하는 수단일 수도 있다. 명예는 보통 잔치를 베푸는 사람이 갖게 되지만 개인적인 신뢰나 명예가 돈의 지출과 밀접한 관계가 있는 곳에서 잔치를 베푸는 것은 사회적지위라는 사닥다리에서 한 단계 올라가는 것이다. Banks Islands와 Melanesia 의 다른 지역에서 각종의 이런 잔치는 남자들 사회에서 지위를 얻는 의식의 일부분이며 이것이 원시 생활의 한가지 중요한 특징이다. Polynesia에서는 이런 계급별 잔치가 보통 없지만 Tikopia에서는 추장이 약 10년마다 잔치를 베풀어서 자기 통치기간의 연속을 기념하게 되어있다. Assam Nagas 지방의 "공적 잔치"는 사회적인 경쟁자들에 대한 주장이라기 보다는 사회 내에서 어떤 인정받는 지위를 얻기 위한 수단이다.
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